If I'm printing on the Noritsu, should I also convert from 16 to 8 bit? You mention using Pro Photo, but won't that throw off what it looks like on screen from the Noritsu, which I believe cannot print that many colors anyway?
The point in using ProPhoto is to allow you to better control the conversion from ProPhoto to the printer profile in Photoshop. Due to ProPhotos size, there are few printer profiles that don't fit fully within it. This means you can utilize the full range of the printers gamut whereas a smaller color space such as sRGB or even AdobeRGB will not fully encompass the printer gamut due to differing shapes of the gamuts.
If the printer can take a 16-bit image then give it one if you are letting it do the color conversion for your. If not, then there won't be a big benefit. If your image started off as a 8-bit/channel image, then there is no point whatsoever in converting to 16-bit/channel as you won't gain anything.
If I calibrate my monitor at 9300K, will that NOT give me a correct color calibration? I mean why 6500K?
While you will get a correct color calibration, 9300K is not a good choice because it is very very blue and that will have an effect on your adjustments. Your images will appear cool and that can cause you to compensate unnecessarily. 6500K is the best choice since that is close to actual daylight* and our eyes function best at that range. For those reading this with a LCD display that is 9300K native, then calibrate it to 6500K anyway. The negative effects of a monitor that is too cool will outweigh any negative effects from calibrating to a different color temp. People with CRTs don't have to worry about image degradation when adjusting color temp since the adjustments are analog adjustments to the CRTs RGB ray guns.
*I'll as a little side-point here that 6500K isn't a specific color, but a range of colors. Daylight is a very specific characteristic of light called D65. Ideally, you'd calibrate the display for D65 but there are few programs that do so.
AdobeGama is worthless. Since it depends on your eyes, which are easily fooled, you can have a very different interpretation each time you calibrate with them. The hardware calibrator will do the calibration and measure for you and be a billion-trillion times more accurate.
Your will be able to set the display to 94cd/m2 when calibrating with a hardware calibrator.