Thanks for taking time. I looked a bit at your suggested sharpening and it works better than mine. I have been playing around with Focus Magick, too. Back to sharpening school!
I also looked at the images in Capture One, and I see some clear advantages, worth discussing.
The main question on this thread is still if there is visible difference between a DSLR and an MFDB when printed in relatively small prints, like A2. Reasonably, the same sharpening or even better could be applied to the Sony Alpha 99 image, too.
This is very relevant for anyone printing small and cares about spendings. My test here is done with a 10-25 year old kit (except the back) that costs about 12K$, compared to one that costs something like 4k$, and it is a zoom vs. a prime that is a bit soft but highly regarded. Hartblei.de sells the same optical group for 4595€, something like 6k$. (Stefan says it is same optical group but round aperture and improved internal shielding, and also it works best at f/11 which I think was used here.)
Now, you can get 24MP kit with an excellent lens like the Sony A7 with the Sony 55/18 ZF lens for 2696$, that lens seems to be very good. It may be a better choice for small prints than a 12K used MFD kit if there is little difference at that print size, if economy matters. I guess that economy matters for most readers on these forums. (Regarding the A7r, I would not really consider it right now. I would rather wait a year or so for next generation but the A7 seems attractive). You can of course buy Canons, Nikons too, and Sigma seems to make some very good lenses at attractive prices.
For someone not caring about spendings and wanting the best I guess that a technical camera with Rodenstock HRs is the way to go, or may be even buying a drum scanner and working with 8x10" film.
I downloaded one of the P45+ dng files and looked at it Lightroom 5.3. The dng had your original settings and all I did was decrease the detail slider (I believe you had it on 100%) and backed it off to around 50% and then added a bit more from the sharpening slider. I exported the image at 300dpi, which is what I do for everything I work with. (I will print from either PS or LR and most times will select 180 or 240 for the print output), On the P45+ image I would have picked 240 if I was going to make a print.
After export, I used Focus Magic to give the image a bit more sharpening to my like. I prefer this method and get very good results when printed with either my 9900 or 7800 Epson. I did not upgrez this image to anything larger than what the default image was at 300 dpi.
Net, your P45+ image looks great, the areas that were in the focus plane of the camera/lens are very very sharp. The growth rings on the cut tree to the left and the lichens on the center rocks all look very good. The overall image looks very good to me nice shadow detail and no noise to speak of. With the Hassi Zeiss lenses you are getting some great fine details. The other thing that caught my eye was the small ferns towards to the top, even though these were a bit past the focus point, they still resolved very well also, with detail extending into the individual fern fronds. Also the out of focus areas have an excellent transition, note the pine tree trunk on the right of the image. No smearing or increase in noise artifact, which I tended to get with my Mamiya 35mm AF or 28mm AF and the P45+
I attached a crop below from the center.