If you are working with ProRes files renaming shouldn't be a problem. I would just make a copy (dragging the file from one hard drive to another is one way to make a new file without changing the name. Another is to use the standard copy and paste commands to paste a new file onto a temp folder.). Anyway, once you have new new file, rename that and test if you have any problems. I really doubt you would with a ProRes QuickTime. You can do a lot of weird stuff to that sort of file (including its frame rate) and it will still play back just fine.
If you are working with the raw media, specifically a set of folders with all manner of files contained inside, I would be very careful about renaming stuff. I suspect you could get away with renaming the outer most folder, but changing anything inside that folder may make your data completely unreadable. Your best option when working with raw is to use Davinci Resolve to output ProRes quick times.