The fact that you are asking so many questions about this issue should mean that in reality it isn't possible?. Concentrate on what is "pleasing".
Frankly, that is IMHO a bit evasive. It may not be possible to do it exactly accurate, but we may still be able to do it somewhat accurate. We know that our camera, even under optimal conditions, doesn't create an exactly accurate color image. If it did, then color temperature would be exactly the same as the (incandescent) illuminant emission, and tint would be zero. And even then, metameric color may look different than it does under a different color temperature, and ambient reflections may create a local color cast.
So, what would be useful is to be able and eliminate the obvious tint errors, as much as possible, if they can be attributed to the illuminant. Then, and then only, can we adjust towards 'pleasing' rendering (whatever that may be for an individual observer), also taking local ambient color reflections into account.
The real challenge is in determining the correct White balance for the main illuminant, usually with only our inaccurate tri-chromatic sampling device/camera to measure it with. We either have to rely on reflection from objects in the scene, which may fail due to non-uniform spectral reflection, or on the main light source which may be filtered or has a deviating emission spectrum.
At the end of the day if you colour correct an image and it pleases you you should then be happy.
That seems a bit of a circular reasoning to me, the colors are pleasing when they are made pleasing. The OP was wondering if there is a more objective way to arrive at that goal. Since there may be many pleasing renderings possible (also depends on (lack of) taste), why not pick one that is at least somewhat accurate?
I think that (if possible) a WhiBal or ColorChecker or other spectrally neutral reference object that is directly illuminated by the main illuminant (or its reflecton, e.g. blue sky in shadows) can help to eliminate most of the (tint) inaccuracies
thus leaving our sense of taste or creativity to give it a spin which is at least founded on a stable/believable starting position.
When I want to create e.g. a pleasing sunset image, I know that the balance between shorter and longer wavelengths is distorted in a somewhat predictable manner. I do not want other color casts to dominate that image if my goal is to approach a somewhat accurate representation of that scene. From there it is still possible to adjust saturation or color temperature, but then that won't boost inaccurate tint influences. It basically takes part of the guesswork out of the equation.