In Lr 5 you can command-option-click (on Mac) or control-alt-click (on Windows) to duplicate a local adjustment. For linear graduated filter and radial filter adjustments, if you drag (instead of merely clicking), you can also move the duplicated adjustments. A practical example of this is a portrait of two people, and you want to brighten the faces. You create a RF adjustment for one face, and then you want to apply a similar adjustment to the other face. This shortcut makes it straightforward to do that (e.g., cmd-option-drag the 1st adjustment to the other face).
The cmd-option / ctrl-alt modifier shortcut is inspired by Photoshop. For example, in Ps if you have a selection, you do cmd-option-drag / ctrl-alt-drag within that selection to duplicate (and move) that selection.
Local brush adjustments are not (currently) re-positionable but it may be possible in the future.