All that said, if one wants to define a property of media that relates to its ability to write on successfully with graphite pencil, and you want to call that "tooth", I readily agree that this property can be distinctly different than texture. Thanks for bringing up this issue.
English is not my native language but one tries to get an understanding of the terms.
Tooth can describe a texture property. For "more tooth" I had a more abrasive texture in mind, on a larger scale say Dolomites compared to the other Alps. In inkjet papers William Turner versus German Etching, same texture frequency but sharper tops. I do not relate it to paper fiber either but a good sized rougher drawing paper would get more tooth than the same paper with less size or a smoother paper with sizing. The glossy papers discussed here have the texture more or less embossed and paper fiber does not play an important role here but in some fiber/baryta papers.
Luster has more tooth you wrote. My association with that term was more sparkle, say a glossier Pearl quality, texture of both somewhat lower frequency and rounder tops than Satin, so less tooth. Not that I see my association back in the paper samples' naming. But for me Ilford Smooth Pearl becomes Luster when I apply the HP gloss enhancer on top. I would expect a lower frequency in its texture though, too close to satin.
Semi-Gloss, Semi-Matte, Satin and your Eggshell are hard to separate. Companies usually arrange the qualities they offer so that they cover the spectrum the customer expects, sometimes in names only and then this category shows considerable shifts to what another company offers on that range. When texture is not visible anymore but the gloss grade varies I do not expect a label like "Satin", then it should be (Smooth) Matte, Semi-Matte (Eggshell), Semi-Gloss, Gloss, High- Gloss. If there is high frequency texture (hardly detectable) with a semi-gloss reflection then it becomes Satin for me. Silk should be lower frequency than Satin but more regular. The Epson Proofing White Semi-Matte is more or less Eggshell to me, without the Gloss Enhancer applied. Some Fibre/Baryta papers have it too
The Ilford Galerie Smooth Pearl is less glossy than the HP Premium ID Satin Photo paper, the texture is almost identical. I would have expected a slightly lower frequency in the Pearl's texture and a similar gloss in both. Very subjective, I know.
Your >>Kodak "Y" was heavily calendared with a "diamond chisel" type surface that seemed to be popular for school portraits, but IMHO, was kind of cheap/tacky looking<< is back in inkjet papers I'm afraid, several companies that had a very regular, fine embossed paper in their new catalogs on the Photokina. I never liked that texture either. Tecco Silk Raster, Photolux StudioPortrait Cooltone, Tetenal Silk. Which introduces another ambiguous term, Cooltone. Photolux uses Cooltone for anything colder than b -5 and Warmtone for -2 to -5. Warmtone starts at +b values for me, like found in Fiber, Baryta and matte cotton papers.
I see a lot of Gloss papers that could easily be called Semi-Gloss and possibly no Gloss paper that could fall in the High-Gloss group, which is a small group. I think a matter of Gloss inflation. Some Gloss and all High-Gloss papers become less glossy when I print Gloss Enhancer on them, almost an objective line to draw between them but an arbitrary one.
Met vriendelijke groet, Ernsthttp://www.pigment-print.com/spectralplots/spectrumviz_1.htm
December 2012, 500+ inkjet media white spectral plots.