Why should we trust a theory if it confirms your false assumption of Foveon resolving power? No sensor resolves beyond Nyquist, and Bayer CFA equipped sensors resolve over 90% of Nyquist.
Aku, relax a bit; we are not in violent disagreement. My 2:1 pixel count ratio was a rough rule of thumb, not a precise measurement: it would be absurd to propose a single precise number for all CFA cameras with their varying demosaicing algorithms and OLP filters. In terms of linear resolution, my 2:1 corresponds to the Bayer CFA approach having about 70% of the linear resolution or a non CFA sensor. I am happy to refine that 70% up to about the 80% figure suggested by Graeme Nattress (whose job at RED includes things like designing demosaicing algorithms, or so I have been told). And as I noted elsewhere, that 80% figure reduces my 2:1 rule of thumb to about 1.6:1. Even express in the more reasonable unit of linear resolution, the gain is 25%, which seems worthwhile.
But note: when I talk about resolution, I am not referring to the extinction level at which things are barely distinguished (and beloved of film zealots trying to prove the inferiority of digital to film) or measures with high contrast black-and-white test targets. I am instead talking about useful levels of retained contrast, like a MTF of 50% or better, and by that standard, 90% of Nyquist seems over-optimistic.
As to off-set micro-lenses; I had not heard of them being used other than in Kodak CCDs, but am happy to learn of progress on that front: do you have some references of them used in CMOS sensors for DSLRs or mirrorless systems? It would be nice if Leica could use a CMOS sensor with such technology to move beyond CCDs someday soon. Note though that the modern mirrorless systems do not need to work so hard in dealing with off-perpendicualr incident light, because their new lens designs can have a high exit pupil and have a chic ray that stats reasonably close to perpendicular even at the corners of the frame (Having rear elements near the focal plane does not always mean a low exit pupil, though that is true with more classical near-symmetric lens designs.)