Amsterdam is a wonderful place and easily explored. Get yourself a good city guide book and just go. The tramways should bring you to more remote parts of town - but the city centre is not that large (about 5 km diameter).
As for a bit of typical Dutch landscape: hire a car for a day and go to the polders just north of Amsterdam, like the Schermer and especially the Beemster.
Around Broek op Langedijk, Westzaan etc. you should find plenty of mills. No tulips in November though!
Well worth a visit are the villages along the IJsselmeer, like Durgerdam, Monnikendam, Edam etc.
Hope you will enjoy your visit to the Netherlands!