You will find that subtle differences between any two lenses that might be discernible at 100% or 200% enlargement on screen can be irrelevant on prints of a given size.
However, it's impossible to answer your question definitively because two EF 17-40 lenses from different manufacturing batches could show as much quality variation, visible on screen and print, as any randomly chosen EF 17-40 and EF-S 17-85 compared under the same conditions.
Because of quality control variation, apparently objective assessment meticulously carried out, cannot necessarily be applied across the board. From what I've read, there's quite a lot of QC variation in both of these lenses.
My policy is, always carry out your own tests before buying a lens, if possible. Compare it with another lens you own that you know is good, at the same focal length.