My experience with Nikon cameras, specifically with D300 and D800 using LR. The value "create date" (EXIF), which is stored in LR in the variable "captureTime", table "Adobe_images", can store values up to 1/100 of a second (YYYY:MM:DD HH.MM.SS.XX) I have checked both the exif and the values in the database to series of photos taken at Ch (4 ~ 6 fps) and they have the same HH:MM:SS with different values for the 1/100 sec.
When I select Sort by "capture time" in LR, they are correctly ordered, even if all of them have the same HH:MM:SS
Having said that, I noticed that in the case of the D800, the last digit is always 0, meaning it does not use 1/100 but up to 1/10 sec, (which is not a problem for that camera), but the D300 does use up to 1/100 sec. so I guess this is camera dependent.
Unfortunately, none of the editing tools I know show these values. You have to use either something like EXIF tool or a Database management tool for the LR catalog.
The attached image shows an extract of a LR catalog, table "Adobe_images" with the highlighted column "captureTime" (using SQLite).